동일과정설(uniformitarian) 패러다임 하의 지형학(geomorphology)은 지형(landforms)의 기원을 설명하는 데에 커다란 어려움을 가지고 있다. 이러한 지형(지형의 대부분은 한때 매우 컸다) 중에 하나는 평탄면(planation surface, 평탄한 표면)이다. 평탄면은 흔하고 전 세계적이다. 평탄면은 오늘날 형성되는 것이 아니라 파괴되고 있다. 아프리카는 어떤 대륙보다도 많은 평탄면으로 뒤덮여 있지만, 평탄면의 연대와 수는 항상 논란이 되어왔다. 아프리카의 평탄한 표면에 대한 한 새로운 합성 그림은 아프리카 표면(African Surface)이라 불리는, 아프리카에서 한 거대한 뒤틀린 평탄면이 있음을 결론내리고 있다. 아프리카 표면의 대부분은 견고피각(duricrust)이라 불리는 화학적 침전물에 의해서 뒤덮여 있다. 그것의 기원은 수수께끼이다. 평탄면과 침식면은 대륙의 융기 동안 물러가는 홍수물에 의해서 쉽게 형성될 수 있었을 것이다.
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전 지구적 홍수를 가리키는 아프리카의 평탄면 (new)
: 동일과정설적 지형학이 결코 설명할 수 없는 모습
Figure 1. Top of the planation surface in the western Cypress Hills. This surface is capped with an average of about 23 m of well-rounded quartzite gravel and boulders from across the continental divide, over 400 km away.
Figure 2. Lake Missoula flood bar along the Snake River, Washington, west of Little Goose Dam. The bar is about 60 m thick and made up of practically all basalt gravel eroded from the Columbia River Basalt substrate.
Figure 3. Planation surface in the Grand Canyon area after about 1.5 to 3 km of sedimentary rock was eroded.
Figure 4. A planation surface on top of a small plateau in the northeast Bighorn Basin, just west of Greybull, Wyoming. Note that the strata dip to the west (i.e. to the right) at about 30° (view south).
Figure 12. A planation surface being destroyed east of the Little Rocky Mountains, central Montana, USA.
Figure 11a. The Great Escarpment (solid line) is located around southern Africa (after Oard, ref. 67, p. 54). Note that the escarpment is about 100 km inland from the coast, having retreated inland due to erosion
Figure 11b. Cross section through southern Africa showing the flexing upward of the coastal sections and the formation of a seaward-facing Great Escarpment (from Oard, ref. 67, p. 53). The Drakensberg Escarpment between the Highveld and the Natal coastal plain is about 3,000 m high.
Summary and discussion
Planation and erosion surfaces are common across the earth. They were once significantly larger, having subsequently been whittled down by erosion and tectonic processes. These surfaces are one of many geomorphological problems that uniformitarian scientists have great difficulty explaining, although they have a number of hypotheses. The main problem is that they are not forming today (except possibly in very small areas adjacent to rivers), but are being destroyed. There has been much contention on the number and ages of planation surfaces. This dispute is nowhere more evident than on the continent of Africa. Renowned geomorphologist Lester King vacillated on the number of African planation surfaces. A recent synthesis has claimed that there is only one planation surface on Africa currently found at different altitudes because of regional tectonics. This planation surface is called the African Surface, which was one of King’s main planation surfaces.
Figure 14. A simple block diagram showing the current continental sedimentary rocks with the volume of sediments eroded after Day 150, the ‘Erodozoic’, during the Retreating Stage of the Flood (drawn by Mrs Melanie Richard).
The African Surface, as well as other planation surfaces, were readily formed as the floodwater rushed off the continents during the Retreating Stage of the Flood, while the continents uplifted and the ocean basins sank (Psalm 104:6–9). Planation surfaces are powerful evidence for the reality of the Flood. Planation surfaces were formed during widespread erosion of the continents by water, leaving behind erosional remnants, eroded anticlines and transported resistant rocks hundreds of kilometers from their source. The formation of planation surfaces was the last great event to affect the continents, the Ice Age notwithstanding. During planing, erosion was up to 5 km in places, such as on the Colorado Plateau88 and the Appalachians. The literature claims deep erosion at many other locations on the continents.
Planation surfaces not only tell us of the great erosion of the continents, but also demonstrate that the sedimentary rocks left behind underneath the planation surfaces likely were from before the Retreating Stage and thus from the early part of the Flood, called the Inundatory Stage. The Retreating Stage was mostly a period of erosion on the continents and not deposition (figure 14). It is called the Erodozoic by Holt. Such a deduction has profound implications for interpretation of the geological column. It implies that no matter what the uniformitarian date of the surface sedimentary rocks on the continents, especially at high altitude, even if dated Pliocene, they are from the first half of the Flood. This deduction makes the Cenozoic on the continents, especially at inland and high-altitude locations, as deposited predominantly during the Inundatory Stage. It also eliminates any significant post-Flood catastrophism. It also implies that the Flood/post-Flood boundary is in the late Cenozoic.
I thank Melanie Richard for drawing figures 13 and 14.
• It’s plain to see
• The K/T impact hypothesis and secular neocatastrophism—why is this important to Flood geology?
• Noah’s long-distance travelers
• Flood transported quartzites—east of the Rocky Mountains
• Flood transported quartzites: Part 2—west of the Rocky Mountains
• Flood transported quartzites: Part 3—failure of uniformitarian interpretations
• Flood transported quartzites: Part 4—diluvial interpretations
•Geology Questions and Answers